introduction / background

Hospital acquired infections are localized or systemic conditions resulting from adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agent or its toxins acquired from health care settings that were not incubating or symptomatic at the time of admission to the healthcare facility . One of the major sources for spread of HAIs are fomites which include any inanimate objects capable of carrying infectious organisms. Fomites can serve as a vehicle in transmission of health care associated pathogens especially in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and Operating Rooms (ORs) where the patients are immunocompromised and at high risk of acquiring Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria


Assessment of the bacterial contamination on inanimate surfaces and equipment in ICUs and ORs at Tanta University Educational Hospital in order to detect the unusual sources of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) and give appropriate recommendations for corrective actions.

Materials & Methods

Materials used for collection and transport of samples Materials used for bacteriological and fungal identification as Gram stain set , Bacteriological culture media, Biochemical reactions Materials for antibiotic sensitivity. The study was carried out on 350 samples, 300 samples collected from hospital surfaces (group I) and 50 similar samples from non-medical fields as control (group II). The Samples were collected in sterile nutrient broth and incubated for 24 hours. The isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria were done via standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolates were assessed by disc diffusion method.


The contamination level from group I and group II were (88.3%) and (84%) respectively. In group I, Gram negative bacilli were the most frequent isolates followed by Gram positive cocci then Gram positive bacilli, fungi and lastly Gram-negative cocci that represented (35.7%), (34.4%), (25.9%), (3.2%) and (0.8%) respectively. In group II, all bacterial isolates were gram positive bacilli that represented (100%). Multi drug resistant bacteria included (42.6%) of Staph. aureus, (25%) of CoNS, (39.1%) of Enterococcus spp., (62.7%) of E. coli (93.3%) of klebsiella pneumonia, (50%) of Citrobacter spp. (50%) of Enterobacter spp., (50%) of Serratia marcescens, (100%) of Proteus vulgaris, (37.5%) of Acinetobacter spp. and (36.7%) of Pseudomonas spp. (42.6%) of Staph. aureus were Methicillin resistant, (25%) of CoNS were Methicillin resistant, (39.1%) of Enterococcus spp. were Vancomycin resistant and (27.1%) of Enterobacteriaceae were ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae.


Hospital acquired infections remain nowadays a public health problem with the presence and diffusion of organisms in all hospital ICUs and ORs. Most of the hospital samples were contaminated with potential pathogenic bacteria, while the control samples were contaminated with commensal bacteria The high prevalence of MDR bacteria and multiple resistant patterns as MRSA, MRCoNS, VRE and ESBL in ICUs can lead to lethal outcomes.


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acknowledgement / Contact

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